To implement the in-place editing as in Drupal 8 in a Drupal 7, just enable the contributed module Quick Edit. Some more details about it (quotes and images are from their project pages).
Quick Edit allows content to be edited in-place.
Quick Edit is a backport of the Drupal 8 In-place editing for Fields.
Have a look at the Spark distribution also. Some more details about it (from its project page):
The Drupal 7 Spark distribution is a collection of contributed modules that greatly enhance the authoring experience on top of what Drupal 7 provides. Most key components from the Drupal 8 features are included and some more that did not make it into Drupal 8. The following features are included:
- A responsive toolbar that works well on mobile devices
- Well configured CKEditor WYSIWYG tool with full text format integration
- An in-place content editor that allows you to edit nodes in-place on the page
- A mobile device preview tool
- A responsive page layout editor that integrates with Panels and Panels In-Place Editor (IPE)
- Backported improvements like integrated menu administration, module filtering, responsive Bartik theme
- An administration theme called Ember